The acknowledgement and assumption of responsibility by public, private, and voluntary sector officials for their actions, and the existence of redress mechanisms when duties and commitments are not met (Natural Resource Governance Glossary 2017a).

Public, private, and voluntary organisations that monitor the policies and performance of government or others in positions of authority, and take actions to ensure accountability for decisions taken. They include formal independent entities, e.g., ombudsman’s offices, anti-corruption agencies, judicial entities, human rights commissions, and parliamentary bodies, among others. More broadly, civil society organisations, citizen movements, and the media play key watchdog roles (Natural Resource Governance Glossary 2017b).

Adaptive governance is a concept from institutional theory that deals with the evolution of institutions for the management of shared assets, particularly common pool resources and other forms of natural capital (Hatfield-Dodds, Nelson, and Cook 2007).